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Dreams: the depiction of invisibility

Is all that we see or seem, But a dream within a dream?” [1] Edgar Allan Poe  wonders. What are dreams? From the beginning, dream is a mystery, because it is   governed by the ambivalence of visible/invisible. We say that we “dream”, but the dream is a phenomenon that we see, and at the same time we do not see, at the   moment when we are in a state of sleep with our eyes closed and our senses inactive.

 The dream expresses the duality of human corporality, which straddles the hidden  and obvious. Human corporality is visible in terms of its matter, “invisible”, however,   in terms of emotions, inner thoughts, experiences and experiences that have been  registered in it, without becoming visible, as such. All experiences, thoughts and feelings that do not become visible in the visibility of material physicality, appear in  the dream as a representation of invisibility.

 A dream is a state in which matter and form, external and internal, merge. Even the  condition of sleep, within which the dream occurs, is of double importance. Sleep is   the state in which the person rests and his senses are put to rest, without, however,  being inactive. It is no coincidence that in the “Theogony” of Hesiod,  Hypnus ( personification of sleep, the Roman equivalent is known as Somnus)[2] appears as   the twin brother of Thanatos (Death), they were “sorrowful gods”, children of Night and Erebus and lived in the Underworld. Of course, the nature of death as such is  governed by a terrifying anti-dialecticism, since death bisects the relation of being/ non-being and the absolute Non-dominates, ceasing all sensation. On the   contrary, sleep is expressed as an embodied form of dialecticization of being/non-being,  as the sleeping person rests, without having lost his sensibility. The sleeping person is   in the external hic et nunc and at the same time in the hic et nunc of his imaginary  consciousness. In fact, the dialectical philosopher Heraclitus believed that for those who are awake the world is the same and common, while those who sleep are each in   their own world, in the world of their dreams. [3]

 Sleep, then, is this intermediate state of vitality and rest. Many, in fact, argue that  sleep is a foretaste of final sleep, of death. Most likely, they had this belief in ancient   times as well. As, in fact, we see in the Homeric Epics, quite a few times, dreams are presented as channels of communication between the living and the souls that had  gone to Hades. In many cases, the soul of the deceased appeared in sleep through a  dream to convey some message, to warn the person to whom it appeared, to give him  some sign of something that is going to happen in the future. That is why, after all, dreams were taken into account as omens of good or bad events, a fact that many  people believe to this day, emphasizing the interpretation of dreams. 

 Dreams in Epicurean philosophy are not divine signs, nor are they of divine origin,  but, as Epicurus believed, are caused by the coincidence of idols.[4] These idols are the   images that the eye has seen on the outside and have been impressed on the inside of  the human being. Sensible idols are transformed into real images that sculpt the space- time of human interiority.

Dream vision is movement that moves in unsuspected time from interiority to exteriority,  penetrating and projecting the images of the past, the experiences of the present and  the desires of the future. Sleep is not perceived by man with sensation, according to  Aristotle, nor with thought,[5] which presupposes the distinction between truth  and falsehood. How does a person see images, which are not perceptible? How can man see  while his senses are at rest? The dreamlike gaze and the dreamlike visibility express   the duality of the perfection of the eye. The perfection of vision, therefore, is not   exclusively perceptible, but inter-perceptual. This dimension of vision and gaze is   activated by imagination.

 Imagination, as Aristotle believed, is movement that occurs from active sensation.[6] A  dream is a representation that is expressed as a completeness of the imagination. Sleep  is presented as a performance during sleep, when, that is, the eyes are closed, the   imaginary gaze, however, awake, setting in motion the feelings, at the moment when    the person is in a state of sleep. The depiction of invisibility constitutes the dream. Is  the dream, then, the essence of imaginative vision? A vision, which expresses both the   biological dimension of the human body, as well as its experiential dimension..?

 The hylomorphic dimension of dreams is evident in Aristotelian thought, as Aristotle associated the presence and absence of dream images with physical manifestations, which are due either to specific foods and the amount of food, or to  various diseases and their symptoms, such as high fever. This fact demonstrates   Aristotle’s attempt to balance, between the mental and imaginary dimension of  dreams. So, are dreams figments of the imagination, or do they contain some truth by   reflecting aspects of human existence?

 Artemidorus Daldianus from Ephesus tried to give answers about the nature and  interpretation of dreams, during the second half of the 2nd century AD. Artemidorus   wondered about the matter and ideas underlying the dream forms, which depict  human actions.

  Artemidorus distinguished between prophetic and non-prophetic dreams. Non- prophetic ones depict the anxieties and anxieties of life that the soul remembers, while   prophetic ones foretell the future.  [7]

 In the newer and modern era, prophetic dreams of important personalities are  believed to depict events that were to happen and, in fact, were decisive, not only for  the person himself, but also for the flow of history. A typical example is the prophetic  dream of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln had a passion for interpreting dreams, as  evidenced by letters to his wife. According to a lawyer friend of his, Ward Hill  Lamon, Lincoln dreamed of his death. His dream depicted a crowd of people  approaching a corpse.

 When Lincoln asked who the corpse was, he was told that it was him, and indeed that  he had been executed, which he had been.[8] On April 14, 1865, while Lincoln was at  Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C., actor John Wilkes Booth shot him in the head. [9]

 The dream of the wreck of the Titanic, which was allegedly presented to 19 different passengers, could also be considered prophetic.[10]

 Prophetic, and even inspirational, some dreams of great people could be  characterized, whose dreams manifested as their greatest inspirations that determined  the development of science.

  A typical case of a man who dreamed of one of his strongest inspirations, which was  to determine the development of science, was the great chemist Kekule. Kekule had   been troubled for years by the way of depicting the chemical formula of benzene. One   night when he fell asleep worried about this question, he dreamed of the benzene ring,  the uroboros, that is, the snake that eats its own tail and symbolizes eternity.[11] In this  case, the dream made clear an idea, which, for various reasons, remained obscured in  the shelters of the existential body.

  Another revolutionary idea originally visualized in a dream was Mendeleev’s  periodic table of chemical elements. Mendeleev, as it is said, dreamed in his sleep of the classification of chemical elements, predicting their chemical properties, which  would come to the light of science much later.

 Other human achievements that first appeared in a dream were Tesla’s alternating current generator, even Google’s world wide web was born as a flash in Larry Page’s dream. [12]

 Do dreams anticipate the future? And if dreams anticipate the future, then are what  happens predetermined? Dream space-time verifies Einstein’s view that: “The  distinction between the past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent  illusion”.[13] Indeed, in the dream there is no separation between the past, the present and the future, since the dream event penetrates with the speed of light the past, the present and the future. In the dream the a priori history simultaneously unfolds as a posteriori history, since past events bring to the surface deeper motivations, visceral thoughts, repressed by the unconscious, on the basis of which the individual forms the hic et nunc of the evolving space-time of externality.

  Although the sleeping person himself dreams of the representations with- and in- his  body, as dreams emanate from the psychosomatic energy of the imagination, the  dream form of himself does not identify with the sleeping person as a person. The   individual as a comprehensive and temporal being inhabits his body, which as aktive  Leib (active body) particularizes his ontological identity. On the other hand, the dream form of oneself within the dream constitutes a bodily shape (kӧrperform), a non-being, which is in anticipation, since it has not been synchronized to the hic et  nunc of the spatial and temporal event.  

 Because the separation between the dream past, the present and the future is indeed an illusion, man has the ability to anticipate time, which does not happen in the  external reality that surrounds him within which he is carried away by the vertiginous  temporal biorhythms.

 The body during sleep looks back on images – moments of the past, which it did not  have the opportunity to become familiar with, due to uncontrolled bio-rhythms. Man, due to uncontrollable bio-rhythms, cannot realize and become familiar with some of  his desires and inspirations, which are depicted in the dream space-time. 

 In dream spatio-temporality the linear course of time does not exist. Thus, the  sleeping person has at his disposal all the time, finite and future, to master the  possibilities of his body, which he has not been able to master in material space-time,  due to his absorption by care for the trivial( Besorgen- Fürsorge, Heidegger, 1927)[14]. That is why in many cases dreams are considered a  therapeutic tool, just like sleep.

 Sleep is considered, in addition to the vital function of rest and rejuvenation of the  body, a way of self-protection. When a person is in a state of intense stress, he goes  into a state of sleep, even when he is not tired, in order to buy time to find a solution  to the problem. Also, the sleeping person has the ability to decipher fears and  anxieties, which are often presented in dreams as omens. In essence, dreams – omens, constitute a spatio-temporal reality of mitSein[15] between the embodied self and the  potential self that is awaiting familiarization.

 This distinction expresses the dual dimension of human nature, the invisible dimension of desires, internal thoughts, the repressed, and the visible side of its physical extent in which the intrasubjective movements of human existence are registered, as it is formed within the space-time event.

  Dreams throughout the ages have been the subject of reflection and contemplation  for many great philosophers. The nature of dreams has always been a mystery, this   conflation of visible/invisible. In fact, one of the main representatives of the Enlightenment Period, Voltaire, wondered how it is possible while all the senses are dead,  during the condition of sleep, that an inner feeling, which remains alive, manifests  itself through dream forms. How is it that, while the eyes do not see, they see images,  which are not perceptible? How is it that, while the ears listen to the complete silence  and peace of sleep, at the same time in dreams they hear sounds and melodies?  [16]

 These concerns of Voltaire lead him to the following reflection: Are the sensory  organs the only ones that act or are dreams also a matter of the soul? The movements of the soul during sleep raised additional questions for Voltaire about the function of  the imagination, which awakens the greatest energy when the body is asleep.[17]

 Voltaire also touches on a very important issue in relation to dreams, that of the will.  Voltaire argued that the will has no part during sleep, since the sleeping person   dreams without having the slightest desire. Contrary to Voltaire, Spinoza considered that man dreams that with the free will of the soul he does what he does not dare to do  in a waking state. [18] For Voltaire the will becomes intertwined with dreams after the  fact, when memory is awake, since the individual chooses which dreams to retain and  take into account. That is, it selects only those dreams that have been fulfilled, which   raises questions regarding the connection between dreams and premonitions.

  After all, do dreams foretell future events, or do they depict events in the present, as  well as inner thoughts that have not fallen into our conscious awareness?

 The questions about dreams once again brought the conscious-unconscious   relationship to the forefront of scientific and philosophical interest. According to Freud, the stimuli received by the person while awake throughout the day were preconscious material, which during sleep mixed with unconscious – repressed  experiences forming the dream.  In dreams unconscious impressions appear as a  representation of invisibility. These images have either not fallen into the perception  of the conscious, or have received a kind of repulsion from human existence itself.  Freud emphasized that the dream is not a pathological phenomenon, as it can appear in all healthy people during sleep.[19]

 The dream depicts the interactions of intra-state-dream forms, which are visible  through the intra-gaze movements awakened during sleep. The body of a dream figure   constitutes a potential bodily shape (potenzieller kӧrperform), which illustrates the  ambivalence of Being/non-Being. This physical form is not felt as such, but only the  consequences it brings to the lived corporality (leib) of the individual.  A typical case  of a dream made visible through the physical modalities it brings about is dreams of  sexual content. These dreams express unconscious and repressed desires depicting the modalities of the love drive vitality, which Freud deepened by emphasizing its  importance, the libido.

 Nocturnal emission or “wet dreams” is the physical expression with which a dream of erotic content is  manifested. Nocturnal emission is the spontaneous orgasm during sleep, which occurs in men  and women.[20] Although the erotic drive is closely associated with the unconscious, experienced sexual activity is a frequently reported pattern of lucid dreams during  REM, which highlights the Aristotelian view that dreaming is a body affair.

 According to Freud the organic sensations manifested during sleep are not the cause of the dream, probably, based on Freud’s interpretation, the dream is the cause of the  organic manifestations.

 Freud emphasized the invisible side of the dream, since he considered that dreams are symbols of the unconscious, which, in fact, either hide messages or present them in an  altered form.[21] In addition, he considered that each image, even if it appears in the same dream, may have its own altered message, which brings to the surface repressed  images of the past, or may even constitute an associative image.

 Contrary to Freud, Jung argued that sleep is the result of the synergy between the  conscious and the unconscious. For Jung all dream images are significant. Each one  has a didactic character, without concealing or depicting distorted symbols. The dream images all together make up the meaning of the dream, they are like pieces of a puzzle, unique, which, however, make up the puzzle of the dream by interacting with  each other. [22]

 Freud, trying to show the importance of the unconscious and the memories that go  into it, studies children’s dreams. Children’s dreams, as Freud believed, differ from  those of adults, due to the fact that the adult has more experiences, therefore more  images etched into the unconscious. Some of them are so intense that, although past, they still affect the person, while others are less intense, therefore they have no  influence on the person. [23]

 Dreams express the other side of sensibility, the unconscious sensibility, which is not  perceived by the person in a waking state. Intense biorhythms heighten the vigilance of the individual, who is absorbed by care for trivial  (Besorgen- Fürsorge, Heidegger, 1927)  and time, with the consequence that all  the events and stimuli that penetrate the multiplicity at dizzying rates do not fall into  his consciousness. Sleep, therefore, the suppression of wakefulness, gives the person the opportunity to catch up with time, or to manage to decode the events of lost   external time.

 Dream is the sculpture of time, the depiction of the familiarity of finite time. Time as a  physical element is continuous, formless and impenetrable. The time of human  existence, however, is the particularized time, which man appropriates through  actions, actions and choices. Man instinctively or subconsciously appropriates time, even if he does not perceive it consciously, even if he considers time wasted, he  makes it personal through repressed, internal desires and wishes.

 Desires in Platonic thought were inextricably linked with dreams. In book IX of the Platonic “Republic”, Plato, in order to make active the consequences of the hegemony of  the epithymeticon (appetite, desire) part of the soul, referring to the tyrannical man who is guided by the  desiring, brings dreams as an example. Desires, for Plato, are those that wake up  during sleep, when, that is, the rational part of the soul sleeps. Dreams, therefore,   emanate from appetites and desires. In the dream the animal  epithymeticon awakens, because within the condition of the dream every concept of prudence,  measure and restraint has been catalyzed. That is why, as Plato points out, the  diligence of the soul is necessary, as well as the balanced care of the body. [24]

 The soul-body relationship, as well as their needs, as reflected in the whole of human  existence, are depicted in the dream. That is why, as it is argued, the interpretation of  dreams was used to diagnose diseases. Are dreams, after all, the source of the idea that soul and body are separate, as the great Nietzsche believed,[25] or does the dream  express the tension of the body towards the soul, and vice versa?

 The dream forms are the meeting of mental – physical, but also mental – chemical,  since the four basic elements of nature are the protagonists, but also mixed, in  countless dreams. Each element has its own semantics expressing both the mental and  physical condition of the person, even various diseases. Gaston Bachelard in his work   “Water and Dreams” focuses on the deeper material side of dreams by delving into the  liquid physical element. Water is an agile element ruling fire and earth.

 If for the Presocratic Heraclitus fire was the element that symbolizes the eternal  cosmological and ontological movement, which is why it was identified with the soul,  for Bachelard the element that determines the movements of vitality was water. Water  flows, flows ceaselessly, dies every minute and is reborn with greater momentum.  Everyday is not the ecstatic death of fire for Bachelard, but of water that flows, rolls,  falls and ends in a horizontal death. The perpetual movement of water from death to  rebirth is more dreamlike than the death of the earth. The death of water is an infinite   dreamlike pain. [26]

 The tragic fate of water is paralleled by Bachelard with the tragic absurdity of human  existence, from nothingness to infinity, from immersion in life to elevation. Man disappears  into deep water or towards a far horizon as he becomes part of infinity. This is the destiny of human existence that discovers its image, as it is reflected in the fate of water,  where its invisibility is depicted.  

 Dream images shape the invisible side of human existence. Human existence as an embodiment of the res extensa – res cogitans mix is ​​governed by the basic external  senses, but also by intra-existential senses, which are not perceived in the waking  state. These innermost senses highlight the human body, as a peculiar body of   autonomy, self-energy, proprioception and empathy.

  Man, due to the distance from himself in the midst of extreme forms of bio-power  and vertiginous biorhythms, cannot know the powers of his corporeality, cannot know  what the body can do (Spinoza). Spinoza delves into dream expressions by focusing  on the imagination and the initiatives of the body born within it. The body during the  dream co-moves, as the representational ideas (imaginationes), awaken the  corresponding physical images (imagines). [27]

 Spinoza believed that the particularity of actions emanating from dreams, such as the  actions of sleepwalkers, does not consist in the externality of bodily movements per se, but in the synchronization of dream images and bodily movements. According to Spinoza’s view, the soul, which is responsible for the dream manifestations, is not surprised by the fact that the body moves, it is surprised after the fact, as it diagnoses  that the movements of the body presuppose its participation. Spinoza recognized the  body’s ability to act on its own initiative during wakefulness, performing not only  bodily movements but also movements of imaginary events. Such forms of imaginary events are the images of sleepwalkers which presuppose conception and volition, and  at the same time the modalities of bodily movements.

 The body has capabilities that surprise the soul, as it finds that autonomous bodily  capabilities presuppose its participation. Of course, man himself does not realize the  causes of these bodily actions,[28] as he is only aware of his actions and their results.  Therefore he considers himself free, because he is conscious only of his actions. In  fact, however, human is not conscious of the causes, or at worst unable to be aware of the causes of his bodily emotions, because of his absorption in today’s complex   risk reality.

  Although usually in a state of wakefulness man does not have the ability to perceive the causes of bodily emotions, very often, he perceives them during sleep.  According to Spinozian thought, the manner in which certain dream images are depicted strongly indicates that the imperative of the soul, which in the waking state silences a corresponding representation, is present within certain dream  representations.

  The dream, as seen in Spinoza’s philosophical thought, is the illustration of the  imagination-body synergy. The activeness of the imagination in the dreamlike  depiction of invisibility is evident in Spinoza’s friend Balling’s letter to Spinoza.  Balling long before his son contracted a fatal disease, he heard in a dream his son’s  sighs as he did just before he died. After he woke up he tried to hear the moans again.  This indeed happened, but with less power compared to the sleep condition. When he fell asleep again, he began to hear his son’s moans with greater force and clarity, like  the first time. [29]

 Spinoza tried to explain this phenomenon using as an example a corresponding  experience of his own. Spinoza having awoken from a troubled dream, realized that  he was still seeing the dream images with the same vividness as in sleep. Specifically   the figure of a Brazilian, whom, as Spinoza mentions, he had never seen before.  However, every time the philosopher’s gaze focused on an external object, the  vividness of the dream image was lost, and consequently the image itself was lost.[30] This happens because the gaze turns its attention to the image of an externally present  object, with the consequence that the dreamlike gaze movements activated by the  shapes of figures that are no longer present are weakened. The imaginatio depicted   because of Balling’s dreamlike imagination is preserved for some of the first waking  moments. Balling projects the content of the dream image into external reality in an  attempt to verify it.

  According to Spinoza, both his own visual dream image and the auditory one of his  friend are the result of the synergy of imagination and body.[31] In fact, Spinoza  examines the relationship between imagination and body, during the dream imagery, taking into account the health of the body, as he knew that certain diseases caused as a symptom the disorientation of the imagination, with the result that the patients  imagine quarrels, murders and brutalities. Spinoza, in this way, tries to verify the imagination-body synergy, both in the case of pleasant dream images that strengthen the vitality of the body, and in the case of unpleasant dreams and turbulent nightmares  that often arise due to diseases and their symptoms.

 In the case of Balling, who dreamed the image of his suffering son, the imaginative  experience is primarily pictorial.[32] The father imagines some of the things that result   from his soul participating in anything that flows from his son’s essence, with such  intensity as if it were presented to him. We could say that in this case the intellect is coordinated with the imagination, since it is not a distorted image, but a situation that  corresponds to reality. Additionally, there may be some early elements of the concept of empathy lurking, since the father, during the dream resonance of the existential body, empathizes with the condition of his sick son.

 Dreams highlight the brain’s relationship with human existence itself as a whole, as a  biological and experiential presence. The dream images are due to neuro-cerebral movements and changes, which, however, appear as consequences of changes in the   cryptic that governs ideas and feelings, which are not as such visible in sensible  reality. Furthermore, the ideas and feelings evoked during the dream imagery happen to be diametrically opposed to the emotions and actions of the individual as they are  expressed in perceptible spatio-temporality.

 “Man is the only creature that refuses to be what he is,” Camus had said,[33] except that  in dreams, it is most likely that man is what he refuses to be. Dreams are the  realization of the unattainable, the impossible, the absolute reversal of external space- time. Perhaps this fact is due to the evolution and identification of the word “dream” with some distant and hard-to-achieve goal, with something impossible that can only  be realized with some impossible reversal. This element of the impossible and  unpredictability, which governs dreaminess, probably led the individual to closely  associate the dream with love, especially with the difficult ways of love. Sleep, like love, have the ability to sculpt invisibility, to annihilate distances, to accomplish the  impossible, to synchronize the space-times of lovers, even when they are not together, turning the impossible into a possibility.

 Already since ancient times, the dream had been identified with some difficult goal.  In many cases, in order to emphasize the difficulty of the goal or the futility of a person’s hope, the dream was presented in a highly contradictory way: that is, it was  presented in a waking state. As we are informed by the testimonies of Diogenes  Laertius, when Aristotle was once asked what hope is, he replied: “the dream of an   awake person“. [34]

 The dream is considered a driving force. Many, however, consider the events of the dream more real than what happens in external space-time, preferring their own dream event to the bad texts of the external event, as Sartre had directly formulated: “Like all dreamers, I mistook disenchantment for truth“.[35] 

  Man’s propensity to dream, even in his waking state, is manifest through every form of art, to dream as if he’ ll live forever, and to live as if he’ll die today, if we remember the words of the “rebel without a cause,” James Dean.  [36]

 Every art form is experiential. This results in the viewer entering through his dreamlike imagination into every artistic and spiritual work that has an artistic continuity, feeling the events, fully comprehending them both mentally and emotionally, developing his empathy and coming into direct contact and  communication with the mental world of each artist. The work of art interacts with the viewer, as the work introduces him to a particular, each time, problematic, inspires him, moves him, while on the other hand the viewer forms his own thoughts and opinions in relation to the work, as well as it catalyzes meaning.

  Each time the viewer sees a work of art, it gives another dimension to the specific  visual work, because he sees it from a different perspective, as a result of which he  discovers aspects of the work, which until that moment had not come to the surface. “I  dream of painting, and then I paint my dream,”[37] said the great painter Vincent Van  Gogh. Van Gogh’s dreams became the primary canvas on which invisibility revealed  its invisibility.

  Another great form of painting art that highlighted and marked the current of  surrealism which is identified with the dream element, is Salvador Dali. The dreamlike, transcendental -spatial and chronological- element originates from Dali’s paintings, as well as from Salvador Dali and Luis Buñuel’s short film “Un Chien  Andalou“,[38] in which a highly dreamlike story is projected that transcends any and  contemporary reality, but also every element of linear expression of rationality.

 Dreaminess as a depiction of invisibility has been identified with the Seventh Art, as  through the camera, which is identified with the director’s gaze, the dreamlike  imagination is shaped. A great director, whose dreamlike images unfold in his films,  was Andrei Tarkovsky[39]. Dreaminess in Tarkovsky receives a hylomorphic expression, as the dream element is visually expressed as a transcendental image in  the film, but also as anticipation and hope for the unattainable.

  Of course, music could not be missing from our reports. Dreaminess rules classical  music, as seen in the great musical compositions of Tchaikovsky and Debussy. The  dreamlike imagination also originates from jazz music. More specifically, Louis Armstrong’s[40]What a Wonderful world” takes us from the modern world of unpredictable complexity and evil to a world of beauty, as does the song “Somewhere over the rainbow“, performed by Ella Fitzgerald[41] and re-performed by Israel Kamakawiwo’ole, transports us to a world “somewhere over the rainbow… where  troubles melt like lemon drops”. [42]

 It seems, then, that art is the hylomorphic projection of dreamlike invisibility. The  dream kӧrperform turns into kӧrper within the realm of logosphere, graphosphere and    iconosphere.[43] Art comes from dreams and dreams come from art. As George Bernard  Shaw said: “Art is the magic mirror you make to  reflect your invisible dreams in visible  pictures.”[44]  

 Dreams are governed by the visible/invisible chiasm, as they reflect the invisible  moments of life. The dream expresses the drive and vitality of human existence. Man   no matter how disappointed, no matter how desperate, no matter how much he  experiences his transience, he does not stop dreaming. This fact was foreseen by the French artist Jean Cocteau,[45] who realized as he got older that the only thing that did   not weaken were his dreams .

  Are dreams real after all? For many they express truths, for many they are a pure lie,  a fallacy. For Gustave Flaubert,[46] lies and dreams make up man himself. Man lies by  day and dreams by night, as he believed. So, for Gustave Flaubert, the greatest fallacy   is man himself, who deceives by day and deceives himself by night.

 Is life itself a dream after all? What if Edgar Allan Poe was right and all we see is a  dream within a dream? Do we dream what we live and live what we dream? There  may never be a definitive answer to these questions, but it is worth at least trying to sculpt our dreams, to give them form and meaning, while also sculpting the constant  waking dream, life! 





[5] Αριστοτέλους, Μικρά Φυσικά, «Περί ύπνου και εγρηγόρσεως»,(μτφρ. Ν. Δ. Σωτηράκη & Α. Ε. Ευσταθίου), εκδ. Ε&Μ Ζαχαρόπουλου Ε.Π.Ε, Αθήνα 1939.

[6] Αριστοτέλους, Μικρά Φυσικά, «Περί ύπνου και εγρηγόρσεως»,(μτφρ. Ν. Δ. Σωτηράκη & Α. Ε. Ευσταθίου), εκδ. Ε&Μ Ζαχαρόπουλου Ε.Π.Ε, Αθήνα 1939.

[7] Αρτεμίδωρου Ονειροκριτικά [Artemidori Oneirocritica], Tomus I,  Sumptibus S. Lebrecht  Crusii, Lipsiae 1805,  πρωτότυπο από: Παν/μιο της Βέρνης, ψηφιοποιήθηκε: 3 Νοεμβρίου 2020, ανακτήθηκε από:

[8] Κώστας Μανιάτης (2022), «Πέντε διάσημοι που προέβλεψαν τον θάνατό τους», news 24/7,

[9] («Αβραάμ Λίνκολν». “Το Βήμα”. 22 Φεβρουαρίου 2009. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις 30 Απριλίου 2012. Ανακτήθηκε στις 6 Οκτωβρίου 2019).

[10] Φυγόκεντρος [TV show], [ Χρήστος Μπαλούτης (σκηνοθεσία)], © 2016  m.TV, ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑ TV, Greece.

[11] Λύσανδρος Μυγιάκης (2008), «Όνειρα και Ομοιοπαθητική», YOGA, ανακτήθηκε από: altersimilia,

[12] Φυγόκεντρος [TV show], [ Χρήστος Μπαλούτης (σκηνοθεσία)], © 2016  m.TV, ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑ TV, Greece.

[13] Michio Kaku, Ένας άλλος εαυτός σου σε ένα παράλληλο σύμπαν, ©2022 The New York Times Company and Michio Kaku, ανακτήθηκε από,

[14] Martin Heidegger, Είναι και Χρόνος ( Sein und Zeit, 1927), (Μεταφρ: Γιάννης Τζαβάρας), εκδ. Δωδώνη, Αθήνα, 1η εκδ. 1978, 2η, 2013.

[15] Martin Heidegger, Είναι και Χρόνος ( Sein und Zeit, 1927), (Μεταφρ: Γιάννης Τζαβάρας), εκδ. Δωδώνη, Αθήνα, 1η εκδ. 1978, 2η, 2013.

[16] Βολταίρος, «Τα όνειρα», Νουμάς, τ. 182, Ιανουάριος – Φεβρουάριος 2023, Διεύθυνση: Γιάννης Νικολόπουλος,  σ. 21.

[17] Όπ.π.

[18] Παναγιώτης Δόικος, Φαντασία και Γνώση στη φιλοσοφία του Spinoza, εκδ. Ρώμη , Θεσσαλονίκη 2013, σ. 37.

[19] S. Freud, Εισαγωγή στην ψυχανάλυση ( Vorlesungen zur Einfuhrung in die Psychoanalyse, 1917), τ. Β’, (μτφρ. Νίκη Μυλωνά), εκδ. Ελληνική Παιδεία, Αθήνα, 2017, γι’ αυτή την έκδοση: ©2018 ΑΛΤΕΡ ΕΓΚΟ.


[21] Carl Gustav Jung, Dreams, (translated by: R. F. C Hull), 1st published: 1974 by Princeton University Press,  1st published in the UK 1982 by Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1st published in Routledge Classics  2002 by Routledge, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London & NY, ανακτήθηκε από:

[22] Όπ.π. Jung

[23] S. Freud, On Dreams General editor: Paul Negri, Editor of this Volume: Susan L. Rattiner, (translated by M. D. Eder), ©2001 by Dover Publications, Inc., δημοσιεύτηκε 2 Μαρτίου 2012,  ανακτήθηκε από:

[24] Πλάτων, Πολιτεία, (μτφρ. Ι.Ν. Γρυπάρη), εκδ. Ι. Ν. Ζαχαρόπουλου, Αθήνα 1954, Θ’ 571d – 572a.


[26] Gaston Bachelard, Το νερό και τα όνειρα (L’ eau et les reves), (μτφρ. Τσούτη Έλση), εκδ. Χατζηνικολή, Αθήνα  2007.

[27] Παναγιώτης Δόικος, Φαντασία και Γνώση στη φιλοσοφία του Spinoza, εκδ. Ρώμη , Θεσσαλονίκη 2013. Εισαγωγή.

[28] Παναγιώτης Δόικος, Φαντασία και Γνώση στη φιλοσοφία του Spinoza, εκδ. Ρώμη , Θεσσαλονίκη 2013.

[29] Παναγιώτης Δόικος, Φαντασία και Γνώση στη φιλοσοφία του Spinoza, εκδ. Ρώμη , Θεσσαλονίκη 2013, Ι, 3., σ. σ. 44-45.

[30] Όπ.π.

[31] Όπ.π.

[32] Όπ.π, Παναγιώτης Δόικος, Φαντασία και Γνώση στη φιλοσοφία του Spinoza, εκδ. Ρώμη , Θεσσαλονίκη 2013.






[38] Luis Buñuel (directing & screenplay), Salvador Dali (screenplay), Un Chien Andalou [movie], (1929),

[39] Tarkovsky Andrei, Σμιλεύοντας το Χρόνο, (μτφρ. Σεραφείμ Βελέντζας), εκδ. Νεφέλη, 1987, Αθήνα.

[40] What a Wonderful world, written by: Bob Thiele ( “George Douglas”) & George David Weiss, 1st recorded by: Louis Armstrong, 1st released: 1967,

[41]Over the Rainbow, was written for the 1939 film Wizard of OZ, by Harold Arlen with lyrics by Yip Harburg.



[43] Σωκράτης Δεληβογιατζής, Ζητήματα Διαλεκτικής, 4η έκδοση, εκδ. Ερωδιός, Θεσσαλονίκη 2010.




Thomae Ragia

Thomae Ragia was born in Thessaloniki. She completed her undergraduate studies in the department of Education and Literature of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. She also holds a MA degree in Systematic Philosophy. Since 2019 She is a PhD candidate at the same university focusing on the field of Philosophical Anthropology, Dialectics and Phenomenology. She is also engaged in Poetry and has published three poetry collections.

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